Wednesday, May 22, 2013 9:21:38 AM
I'm going to expand on the trumpet: The trumpet is basically a tube with pistons to redirect the airflow, making the tube longer. The longer the tube, the the lower the pitch. Hence why the 4.5 foot trumpet plays higher than the 18 foot tuba. The tubes coming out of the valve casing are such that the second valve lowers the pitch by a half tone (minor second), the first lowers it by a whole tone (major second), and the the third a whole tone and a half (minor third). Any instruments with a fourth valve, have it lowered by two whole tones and a half (perfect fourth). The first valve tube is double the size of the second`s, and the third is the length of the first and the second combined, or three times the size of the second`s. The fourth is the length of the the first`s and the third`s combined, or five times the length of the second`s.